Colouring non-even digraphs

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Marcelo Garlet Millani Raphael Steiner Sebastian Wiederrecht


A colouring of a digraph as defined by Neumann-Lara in 1982 is a vertex-colouring such that no monochromatic directed cycle exists. The minimal number of colours required for such a colouring of a digraph is defined to be its dichromatic number. This quantity has been widely studied in the last decades and is a natural directed analogue of the chromatic number of a graph. A digraph D is called even if for every 0-1-weighting of the edges it contains a directed cycle of even total weight. We show that every non-even digraph has dichromatic number at most 2 and an optimal colouring can be found in polynomial time. We strengthen a previously known NP-hardness result by showing that deciding whether a directed graph is 2-colourable remains NP-hard even if it contains a feedback vertex set of bounded size.

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Garlet Millani, M., Steiner, R., & Wiederrecht, S. (2019). Colouring non-even digraphs. Acta Mathematica Universitatis Comenianae, 88(3), 941-945. Retrieved from